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  • Primary Care
  • FREE for Members
  • Pharmacology CE
  • Psychopharmacology CE
  • Controlled Substances CE
  • Contact hours
0.5 contact hour of which 0.5 contain pharmacology content and 0.5 controlled substances.This continuing education activity is offered free to NAPNAP Members. For non-members, this continuing education activity rate is $10. Urine drug screening (UDS) is a laboratory test frequently used to screen for drugs of abuse, monitor for medication compliance, evaluate for suspected drug intoxication or overdose, and in office-based pain contracts (Kale, 2019; Standridge, Adams, & Zotos, 2010). In children and adolescents, UDS may be used to prevent substance use, evaluate for suspected drug use or intoxication, or as part of substance abuse treatment (Levy & Siqueira, 2014). When using UDS as a tool to make clinical decisions about high-risk medications, it is important to understand the differences between UDS testing modalities, common causes of falsepositive or false-negative results, and the detection window of specific medications. There are two commonly used types of UDS available: immunoassay and gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC-MS; Kale, 2019).